Neuroendocrine Tumours

About the condition

Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare tumours that can occur in the cells of the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is made up of nerve and gland cells. It produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream. NETs can be malignant or benign and are usually slow growing.

NETs are known as functioning tumours, if they produce hormones that cause specific symptoms. There are a number of different types of NETs:

  • GEP NETs (Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours) – develop in the gut or pancreas
  • GI NETs (Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours) – develop in the digestive system
  • pNETs (Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours) – develop in the pancreas
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours develop in the lungs

NETs can also develop in other parts of the body, but this is rare.


The symptoms of a neuroendocrine tumour will vary depending on where it is and the hormones it produces e.g. a tumour in the lung may cause a persistent cough or wheezing. Functioning tumours may cause abnormally large amounts of hormones to be released into the bloodstream. This can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, cramps, wheezing, low blood sugar, blood pressure and heart problems.

If you have any concerns about similar symptoms, it is essential that you see your doctor at once, as the chances of recovery are much higher if cancer is diagnosed early.


Various tests can be used to diagnose NETs, including blood tests, urine tests, and biopsies.

Different types of scans may also be used including:

  • An Ultrasound scan
  • A Computerised Tomography (CT) scan
  • A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan
  • A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
  • An octreotide scan


Treatment depends on your individual circumstances including your general health, where the tumour is and how advanced your condition is.

Unfortunately, many people are only diagnosed after other parts of their body have been affected. However, it may still be possible to surgically remove the tumour, even if it has spread to other parts of your body. If surgery can’t be used to completely cure your condition, it may be used to help manage and reduce any symptoms that you have.

It may also be possible to shrink the tumour or stop further growth using treatments that block the blood supply to the tumour (embolisation), or chemotherapyradiotherapy or radiofrequency ablation (where heat is used to destroy the cells).

Support Services

At CCL we provide support that caters to both the physical and emotional needs of the patient, before, during and after treatment.

We offer a wide range of services for patients, as well as their loved ones, designed to make a very difficult time as easy as possible, and to give our patients the best treatment and support possible. Our support services include counselling, group sessions and much more. You can find the full range of our support services here. We’ll be with you every step of the way.

Book now

If you have any questions about neuroendocrine tumours or would like to book an appointment with one of our neuroendocrine tumour specialists, complete this form online or call 020 8247 3351.

Neuroendocrine Tumours Consultants


Cancer Centre London

Parkside Hospital

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