Thyroid Cancer

About the condition

Thyroid cancer occurs when the genetic material of cells in the gland become damaged or changed, producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division. The abnormal cells then replicate, causing cancer. If undetected, the cancer can spread beyond the thyroid and move to other parts of the body.

The precise causes of thyroid cancer are unknown, but certain risk factors have been identified as including having a family history of thyroid cancer, having a bowel condition known as familial adenomatous polyposis and being overweight.


In its early stages, thyroid cancer tends to cause no or very few symptoms, although the main noticeable symptom of thyroid cancer is a lump or swelling at the front of the neck just below your Adam’s apple, which is usually painless. Other symptoms of thyroid cancer only tend to occur after the condition has reached an advanced stage, and may include:

  • unexplained hoarseness that doesn’t get better after a few weeks
  • a sore throat or difficulty swallowing that doesn’t get better
  • pain in your neck

If any of these symptoms apply to you, or if you have any concerns about similar symptoms, it is essential that you see your doctor at once, as your chances of recovery are much higher if your cancer is diagnosed early. Alternatively you can book an appointment with one of our specialists by completing this form online or by calling 020 8247 3351.


If you’re referred to CCL for diagnosis, your consultant or oncologist will advise you on which tests are relevant to your individual symptoms. Because the symptoms of thyroid cancer tend not to appear until the disease has progressed, it is vital that diagnosis is swift and accurate. Tests may include:

  • A thyroid function test, where a blood test is used to check whether the swelling in your neck is caused by other problems with your thyroid gland
  • A fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which is where A small needle is inserted into the lump in your neck to allow a tiny sample of cells to be removed. The sample is then studied under a microscope
  • An Ultrasound scan, which uses high frequency sound waves to look inside the body and produce live images on a computer display
  • A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan, which is a procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body
  • A Computerised Tomography (CT) scan, which shows a 3D image of the area being looked at


At CCL patients with thyroid cancer are treated by a specialist multidisciplinary team. This team works together to create a treatment plan to suit the individual needs of the patient. Treatment could involve:

  • Surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy)
  • Radiotherapy, which is where high-energy rays are used to destroy the cancer cells
  • Chemotherapy, which involves the use of chemical agents which are toxic to cancer cells, destroying them and preventing them from spreading to different areas. This can be given by injection or in tablet form
  • Biotherapy, which is the use of newer and more targeted therapies to assist the body in fighting the disease

Support Services

At CCL we provide support that caters to both the physical and emotional needs of the patient, before, during and after treatment.

We offer a wide range of services for patients, as well as their loved ones, designed to make a very difficult time as easy as possible, and to give our patients the best treatment and support possible. Our support services include counselling, group sessions and much more. You can find the full range of our support services here. We’ll be with you every step of the way.

Book now

If you have any questions about thyroid cancer or would like to book an appointment with one of our thyroid cancer specialists, complete this form online or call 020 8247 3351.

Thyroid Cancer Consultants


Cancer Centre London

Parkside Hospital

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